The apolipoprotein A assay is a blood test used to measure the amount of apolipoprotein A (Apo A). The utility of measuring Apo A is in the context of a study of hyperlipemia and to evaluate the risk factors of atherosclerosis, circulatory, coronary, etc. Its elevation decreases the risk of this type of diseases.
Apolipoproteins are part of the complex of molecules that carry lipids triglycerides and cholesterol (HDL, LDL, VLDL). Its physiological usefulness in the blood is to help the transport of the lipids and fixation to cellular receptors so that the cells have capacity to absorb the lipids necessary for its functioning.
Apolipoprotein A (Apo A) is associated with HDL lipoproteins, with two forms Apo A1, which corresponds to 75% of HDL and Apo A2 which is 20% of HDL.
Whenever high HDL is found, Apo A will appear elevated, thus being more frequent in women than in men. Measurement of ApoA2 is a better indicator than HDL for the decreased risk of atherosclerosis.
Method of production
To perform this analysis you must be fasting at least the previous 6 hours.
- It can be done in an appropriate place (consultation, clinic, hospital) but sometimes it is done in the patient’s own home.
- In order to make the shot it is necessary to locate an appropriate vein and the veins located in the elbow flexion are generally used. The person in charge of taking the sample will use sanitary gloves, a needle (with a syringe or extraction tube).
- He will put a tortor (rubber-latex tape) on his arm so that the veins retain more blood and appear more visible and accessible.
- Clean the area of the puncture with an antiseptic and palpation will locate the appropriate vein and access it with the needle. The tortor will be released.
- When the blood flows through the needle the toilet will aspirate (by the syringe or by the application of a tube with vacuum).
- At the end of the shot, the needle is removed and the area is pressed with a cotton swab or similar to promote coagulation and you will be instructed to flex the arm and keep the area pressed with a tape for a few hours.
Modifications of the result
- Physical exercise raises Apo A levels.
- Tobacco decreases its values.
- Diets rich in carbohydrates or polyunsaturated fats (vegetables) decrease the values of ApoA.
- Medications that increase the level of Apo A are estrogens, statins, alcohol, oral contraceptives, etc.
- Drugs that lower the level of Apo A are androgens, beta-blockers, diuretics, progesterone.
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Problems and possible risks
- Obtaining a puncture of the vein can produce some pain.
- Possible difficulty in finding the right vein can lead to several punctures.
- The appearance of a bruise (bruise or cardinal) in the extraction area is usually due to the fact that the vein has not closed well after the posterior pressure and blood has continued to produce this problem. A Hirudoid or Trombocid ointment may be applied to the area.
- Inflammation of the vein (phlebitis), sometimes the vein is altered, either because of a purely physical cause or because it has become infected. You should keep the area relaxed for a few days and you can apply a Hirudoid ointment or Trombocid in the area. If the problem persists or fever appears, you should consult your doctor.
Normal levels of Apo A
In men from 75 to 160 mg / dl.
In women from 80 to 175 mg / dl
Evaluation of results
Elevated levels of Apo A are presented in:
- Family Hyperalphalipoproteinemia
Decreased Apo A levels are related to:
- Family hypoalphalipoproteinemia
- Nephrotic syndrome
- Coronary ischemic heart disease