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Apolipoprotein B

Definition

The apolipoprotein B analysis is a blood test used to measure the amount of apolipoprotein B100 (Apo B100). The utility of measuring Apo B100 is in the context of a study of hyperlipemia and to evaluate the risk factors of atherosclerosis, circulatory, coronary, etc. Their elevation increases the risk of this type of disease. 
Apolipoproteins are part of the complex of molecules that carry lipids triglycerides and cholesterol (HDL, LDL, VLDL). Its physiological usefulness in the blood is to help the transport of the lipids and fixation to cellular receptors so that the cells have capacity to absorb the lipids necessary for its functioning.

Apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) is the main polypeptide component of LDL lipoproteins, and almost half of them are VLDL. ApoB100 is synthesized in the liver and is the most important endogenous cholesterol transport mechanism. Apo B100 has affinity for the LDL receptor on the cell surface, and is the main cause of cholesterol deposition in cells.

Method of production of Apolipoprotein B

To perform this analysis you must be fasting at least the previous 6 hours.

  • It can be done in an appropriate place (consultation, clinic, hospital) but sometimes it is done in the patient’s own home.
  • In order to make the shot it is necessary to locate an appropriate vein and the veins located in the elbow flexion are generally used. The person in charge of taking the sample will use sanitary gloves, a needle (with a syringe or extraction tube).
  • He will put a tortor (rubber-latex tape) on his arm so that the veins retain more blood and appear more visible and accessible.
  • Clean the area of ​​the puncture with an antiseptic and palpation will locate the appropriate vein and access it with the needle. The tortor will be released.
  • When the blood flows through the needle the toilet will aspirate (by the syringe or by the application of a tube with vacuum).
  • At the end of the shot, the needle is removed and the area is pressed with a cotton swab or similar to promote coagulation and you will be instructed to flex the arm and keep the area pressed with a tape for a few hours.

Apolipoprotein B

Modifications of the result

  • Feeding rich in saturated fats (animals) raises Apo B100 levels.
  • Medications that increase the level of Apo B100 are androgens, beta-blockers, diuretics, alcohol, and progesterone.
  • Drugs that lower the level of Apo B100 are estrogens, statins, thyroxine, and cholestyramine.

Read More About: Apolipoprotein A

Problems and possible risks

  • Obtaining a puncture of the vein can produce some pain.
  • Possible difficulty in finding the right vein can lead to several punctures.
  • The appearance of a bruise (bruise or cardinal) in the extraction area is usually due to the fact that the vein has not closed well after the posterior pressure and blood has continued to produce this problem. A Hirudoid or Trombocid ointment may be applied to the area.
  • Inflammation of the vein (phlebitis), sometimes the vein is altered, either because of a purely physical cause or because it has become infected. You should keep the area relaxed for a few days and you can apply a Hirudoid ointment or Trombocid in the area. If the problem persists or fever appears, you should consult your doctor.

Normal levels of Apo B

In men from 50 to 125 mg / dl. 
In women from 40 to 120 mg / dl.

Evaluation of results

Increased levels of apo B100 are related to:

  • Hyperlipemia type IIa, IIb, IV and V
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Diabetes
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Pregnancy
  • Cholestasis
  • Coronary ischemic heart disease
  • Anorexy

Decreased levels of apo B100 are related to:

  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Malnutrition
  • COPD
  • Rheumatic diseases
  • Anemia
  • Thinning

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