Asperger syndrome (AS) belongs to the group of pervasive developmental disorders (GU) in the international diagnostic system ICD-10th The most famous type of GU’ sautism . GU is in these years by changing its name to autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which is the collective name for the next version of the diagnostic system.
Asperger’s syndrome is a relatively mild form of autism spectrum disorder, and can be considered an intermediate form between autism and normality.
The disorder most often occurs in school age, although the propensity to develop Asperger syndrome is congenital. People with Asperger syndrome are of normal intelligence, and some even very gifted, though they may have trouble utilizing their talents because of their social handicap.
The diagnosis of Asperger syndrome was first common after the introduction of ICD-10 diagnostic system. Then, the use of diagnosis increased dramatically, so someone has talked about an “epidemic” of autism spectrum disorder. On closer inspection, it turns out that they are tracking down people who have psychiatric difficulties but were not previously diagnosed.
How common is Asperger’s syndrome?
Asperger syndrome is seen in approximately 0.3 percent of children and adolescents, that is typically a few children in each school.
Children with Asperger’s syndrome is referred intellectually normal function, which you can measure it with an intelligence test – for example WISC. Asperger’s syndrome is most often a relatively “pure” form of autism spectrum disorder, with few accompanying disadvantages in the form of, for example, learning disabilities. The gender imbalance is even more pronounced than in autism, 4-6 times as many boys / men have Asperger syndrome compared to girls / women.
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What are the symptoms of Asperger syndrome?
Asperger syndrome is defined by a combination of disturbance in reciprocal social interaction, communication and unilateral interests, which are also called ‘special interests’.
Leg and togetherness
Children with Asperger’s syndrome have difficulty normal play and social interaction, as mentioned often first evident at school, but sometimes also visible as early as kindergarten age. Children can immediately have a right good contact with adults, for example eye contact while they fall short of the in fact very complex, unwritten “rules” for how to play and talk with and in the whole, together with peers. You can talk about weakened emotional intelligence and empathy.
Children are typically a little awkward, geeky loners who are on the periphery of the community. The children can easily become victims of teasing and bullying .When the kids come in 5-10 age begins adults who know them well, typically to sense that they are different and need special consideration, without necessarily being aware that there is a mental disorder. Children with Asperger’s syndrome also often somewhat endearing, affectionate and fascinating by itself, if you understand their nature and meet them on their terms.
Communication and diaglog
The second distinguishing feature is the children’s communication disability, this applies to both linguistic and non-linguistic communication. Immediately the person has a fairly plain language, but with a strange melody with high pitch or laborious, precocious pronunciation.
The vocabulary and sentences are normal, but children find it difficult to participate in a normal conversation, especially about the personal and emotional conditions. It’s as if they do not understand the idea of a dialogue, something that children otherwise develop the ability to completely intuitive from kindergarten age: one says anything, waiting and listening, notice the other’s facial expressions and answers that add nothing to react emotionally and continues in a mutual ping-pong game that will be rewarding for both parties.
The child with Asperger’s syndrome may respond to the cash content in question, then the conversation gets stuck. “Did you like the movie?” – “Yes” replies the child, without taking up the thread or look at the questioner. The desire for contact, which may be in question perceives the child does not. If you write record of such an interview, it may look as if it has been interesting, but “sam” – speech is the result of that has overtaken énstavelsessvar out of the child. The child takes words literally and have a hard time understanding imagery and hints.
If the child for example watching a buddy stand and wag his hand and hear another child asking “What’s the matter?” And the first child replies “Not a stick, that’s just my arm, sleeping …” the child with Asperger syndrome be completely lost, but the chance to check up on what was happening.
The last reason is symptom interests. Children can play simple imaginative play separately and in parallel with other children, but tend to be engulfed by their own interests, whether it comes to dinosaurs, Starwars or S-train plans. They have a sharp eye and surprisingly good memory for systems and details. They are not very dependent on whether they can share interests with others. When people get older, the need for togetherness, however, so they can enjoy to get together in groups, which have the same special interest, for example, role-playing, collecting pictures of bridges or check FLIGHTS in Kastrup airport.
What are the reasons for Asperger’s syndrome?
The fact that the Asperger syndrome, of autism in contrast, relatively rarely accompanied by learning difficulties and other developmental disorders, such as ADHD, means that Asperger’s syndrome have an even stronger hereditary component than autism. One can not detect aberrant genes of the individual person, but you can on the basis of, among other twin and adoption research finding that 80 to 90 percent of the reason is biological heritage. Usually you will find that some close relatives have features resembling Asperger’s syndrome, for example special technical talents.
It is from this research that you talk about a neurological developmental disorder.There are many studies, for example with scanning techniques that have found differences in brain function, among other things, in the frontal and temporal lobe. The modern theories is, however, more on relations between different areas than the local variations in the brain. Although heritage is important, there is still an interaction between heredity and environment. The better understanding and understanding person meetings, the better quality of life and self-reliance and the fewer complications such as conduct disorder, conflict and depression.
As with the genetic reasons there is tendency that the brain processes represent more and more complex, the more one researches them. There are many interwoven causes, no simple answer.
How to treat Asperger’s syndrome?
The main features of the treatment is the same as in autism: information, special education and parenting advice and for young and adult conversation therapy, social training group communities and business training. Medicine is only considered if there besides the syndrome also occurs, for example depression or ADHD.
Information on mental disorders is also known as ‘psycho-education’. It is important as early as possible to give the child / adolescent and family (even) understanding of the disability. It should preferably be done orally and would be supplemented by references to literature and courses.
Parents are experts on their own child and to be informed with with as much technical expertise as the powers and find meaning in.
Insight into the syndrome naturally leads to a feeling of what promotes the child’s strengths and dampen conflicts and frustrations. For example, it is important to convey framework and rules very clear. This can be done using tables with pictograms, showing the order in everyday activities. When the child learns to read, write frames and rules down, and later in the child’s youth can use your phone as a tool to get hold of rules and frames.
It’s a good idea to maintain the requirement to get over it “boring” that all children should learn before the child might be rewarded with being able to pursue his special interest. Here, so-called behavioral useful therapeutic principles.
The more calm and solid structure, the better opportunities to exploit the endowment and special abilities for school learning and vocational training. As a public school is organized today with large classes, project work and team formation liquid – and consequent high social demands – it is necessary that many students with Asperger syndrome go in small special classes with special expertise of the teachers. If students must be “single integrated”, it requires at least as high professional expertise.
In adolescence begins young people to reflect on their character and need help with positive self-understanding and mastery of interaction with others on their special conditions. A modern way to this is the “ugesamtaler” with, for example, teaches a contact. It is a powerful educational-therapeutic tool within a fixed, recurring frame reversing the week’s events, both what went well and what was difficult. The teacher saw how the young people are doing on “life path” and can support him to reflect on it. It can contribute to the social training, which will take place all the time.
Later in life can psychologist talks, possibly in the group with peers, be valuable.
It is important from the outset to exercise autonomy – such as personal hygiene, take public transportation and be on time. It is the precondition for being able to get a regular or protected job. Some can cope with a high school and university education. Others will need specially organized education (STU) involving internships for assessing how independent the young may work.
What is the prospect for the future?
One can today not directly address the biological and psychological processes underlying Asperger syndrome. However, it is such that quality of life can be good if the disability becomes known early, and the child and the family gets help from experts. Initially, the surroundings adapt to the child’s needs. This is done for example by the child is thoroughly prepared for even small changes as it reduces stress and confusion. Gradually, the young learn self-selecting contexts and activities that are good for him or her, for example, togetherness on-one with a friend with similar interests. Even perception can change from being “weird” to be something special.Social kompecenter can be partly trained, although it requires greater effort for children with Asperger’s syndrome than for all other children.
Most need to stay longer at home than average, but part comes in special schools and move as adults in co-housing or sheltered housing. Talent level is important for the professional and vocational opportunities.
Many are in adolescence aware of their differences and feel a loss by not being as other, which at times can cause low self-esteem and a sense of sadness. However it has been known to many people with Asperger’s syndrome, which has been relatively well-functioning, independent people who can do special jobs, although they clearly have their characteristics and needs of shielding. People with Asperger’s syndrome can also live as a couple and a family.