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Blindness Definition, symptom causes and Treatment

Blindness is the loss of visual abilities, partial or total. The early identification of blindness and its rapid management makes it possible to limit possible complications.

Definition of blindness

Blindness is a disorder of vision, characterized by visual impairment. This deficiency is more or less consistent. The total loss of visual ability can be related to it.

Currently, nearly 285 million people in the world have a visual impairment. Of these, 39 million are blind and 246 million suffer from a decrease in visual abilities.

Any person, whatever his age may be concerned by the development of blindness. Individuals in low-income countries, however, are more affected by this phenomenon.

Older people are more inclined to develop such a pathology. In fact, nearly 65% ​​of people who are blind, more or less important, are over 50 years old. Blindness identified and diagnosed before the age of 15 requires rapid and early management, in order to limit any worsening of the disease.

The visual deficiency is identifiable, preventable and curable. According to the International Classification of Diseases, 4 categories can define the visual function:

  • Normal vision without any disability
  • Visual impairment, moderate
  • A deficiency of visual abilities more serious
  • Blindness, or the total loss of vision.

Blindness then resumes, all the visual impairments, from the least important to the most serious.

Causes of blindness

Several causes may be attributable to the development of blindness. Among those :

  • impaired vision such as myopia, hypertropemia, astigmatism, etc.
  • Cataract abnormalities that have not been surgically
  • the development of glaucoma (pathology of the eyeball).

Evolution and possible complications of blindness

The level of visual impairment may be more or less important, depending on the patient. Early and rapid management can limit complications and worsening of impairments.

The progressive loss of vision, until total loss is possible and amplified in the context of a non-care.

The symptoms of blindness

In complete blindness, this will be the total loss of visual ability.

Partial blindness can lead to the development of the following clinical signs and symptoms:

  • a blurred vision
  • difficulties in identifying forms
  • reduced visual abilities in a dark environment
  • a diminished vision at night
  • increased sensitivity to light

Risk factors for blindness

Among the risk factors for blindness, we can mention:

  • the presence of underlying ocular pathology, particularly glaucoma
  • Diabetes and Cerebral Vascular Stroke ( CVA )
  • surgery at eye level
  • exposure to toxic eye products

Premature birth also presents an increased risk of blindness for the child.

How to treat blindness?

The management of blindness includes the prescription glasses and / or contact lenses. Surgery can also be a solution for the most important cases.

Drug treatment can also be part of this management of blindness.

The total loss of vision requires other means of care: Braille reading, the presence of a guide dog, an organization of his daily life accordingly, etc.


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