Categories

Bronchiolitis Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Bronchiolitis is an acute infection of the lungs of viral origin, which affects children under two years of age. It is characterized by an inflammation of the bronchioles, these small channels following the bronchi which lead the air to the pulmonary alveoli. Children with this condition have difficulty breathing and wheezing.

This disease is one of the most common causes of hospitalization in children under two years of age. Complications, rare, can be serious.

Autumn and winter are the seasons when bronchiolites are the most common.

Causes of Bronchiolitis

  •  Respiratory syncytial virus or RSV infection in the majority of cases. However, not all children infected with this virus develop bronchiolitis. Indeed, the majority of them have a specific immune defense against it, even before the age of two years.
  • Infection with another virus: parainfluenza (5 to 20% of cases), influenza , rhinovirus or adenovirus.
  • A hereditary disorder: some genetic diseases interfere with the proper functioning of the bronchi and could be taken into account. See the section at risk.

Contagion and contamination

  • The virus is transmitted through the airways, and can be carried by soiled objects, hands, sneezes and nasal secretions.

Evolution

The symptoms of bronchiolitis last from 2 to 3 weeks , the median duration being 13 days.

Patients with bronchiolitis will often develop asthma in the coming years.

Complications

Generally benign, bronchiolitis may nevertheless lead to some more or less serious complications, as the case may be:

  • bacterial superinfection, such as obits media or bacterial pneumonia;
  • seizures and other neurological disorders;
  • respiratory distress
  • central apnea;
  • asthma, which can occur and persist for several years thereafter;
  • heart failure and arrhythmias;
  • death (very rare in children who do not have another disease).
  • Signs related to dehydration: sometimes, the disease causes dehydration due to the child’s coughing too much to absorb liquid through the mouth. In this case, the baby may be irritable, have tongue and dry lips, cry without tears and stop urinating.
  • During the next two to five days: fever, coughing, wheezing, difficulty and fast.
  • Warning signs: a cold with significant nasal discharge, sneezing, a rather dry cough, a mild fever, a refusal to eat.
  • Signs of aggravation:

– flutter of the nose
– pulling
– rapid breathing
– accelerated heart rate
– bluish discoloration of skin, nails and lips caused by lack of oxygen (rare and severe);
– crept rattles (during the inspiration, a succession of dry sounds is heard).

NB The child may wheeze but do not disturb the child too much. He eats and sleeps without problems. In such a case we may think that the presentation is more benign. The doctor will most often diagnose bronchiolitis based on symptoms, vital signs including oximetry and physical examination. Blood tests or x-rays are not routine.

People at risk

With exception, young children under the age of two are the most at risk. Of these, some are nevertheless more susceptible to the disease:

  • premature babies;
  • infants less than six weeks old;
  • children with a family history of bronchial asthma;
  • those who suffer from congenital heart disease;
  • those whose lung development was abnormal (bronchodysplasia);
  • those who suffer from cystic fibrosis of the pancreas (or cystic fibrosis), a genetic disease. This disease causes excessive viscosity of gland secretions in various parts of the body, including bronchial tubes.
  • Amerindian children and native of Alaska.

Risk factors

  • Be exposed to second-hand smoke (especially when it comes to the mother).
  • Attend a daycare.
  • Live in a disadvantaged environment
  • Live in a large family.
  • Vitamin D deficiency at birth . One study reported that a low concentration of vitamin D in umbilical cord blood is associated with a six-fold higher risk of bronchiolitis.

 

 

Basic preventive measures

Hygiene measures

It is important to avoid the risks associated with hand or air transmission (coughing, sneezing). Here are some simple steps to put luck on your side:
– wash your hands often and carefully;
– do not expose the child to second-hand smoke, whether at home or in public places;
– do not put the child in the presence of infected persons. Note that day care significantly increases the risk of being infected with respiratory syncytial virus. Ideally, during an epidemic, it will be best not to enroll the child in a day care center before the age of six months to prevent severe forms of bronchiolitis;
– kiss the baby on the legs and hands rather than on the face. This recommendation applies in particular to brothers and sisters who frequent places at risk during an epidemic: school, daycare, etc .;
– daily disinfect objects (bottles, toys, kitchen utensils, etc.) and surfaces put in contact with the young child.

Breastfeeding

As with most childhood diseases, breastfeeding provides the child with antibodies that have not yet had time to develop. Studies tend to confirm the protective effect of breastfeeding against bronchiolitis. According to one of these studies, this protective effect would be stronger in children exposed to cigarette smoke.

In all cases of bronchiolitis, seek immediate medical attention.

If it is a mild form of bronchiolitis, treatment can continue safely at home. Hospitalization will be used if the physician identifies risk factors for poor prognosis, specific risk factors, low oxygen saturation, dehydration that cannot be corrected orally, or other signs of complication. .

Treatment of the acute episode

– Treat the fever. To do this, acetaminophen is effective.
– In addition to bronchial obstruction, there is very often a nasal obstruction that aggravates the situation. It can be helped by nasal instillation with saline. This technique can be applied by parents and is recognized as more effective than the baby fly.
– Make sure the child is eating enough. For this, we can unclog the nose and pharynx before he eats, split his meals or “thicken” his bottles.
– Correct dehydration caused by fever and fast breathing by making the child drink a lot of fluids.
– Provide the child a healthy environment: correct ventilation, no tobacco smoke
– Lay the child in a semi-sitting position, including sleeping.
– Doctors sometimes prescribe antiviral medication if the respiratory syncytial virus is involved; its use is reserved for extremely severe cases, immunosuppressed patients or with congenital heart disease.
– Antibiotics are sometimes given, but only if the bronchiolitis is complicated by a bacterial infection, such as obits media or pneumonia.
– Respiratory physiotherapy, or physiotherapy, was found to be ineffective in bronchiolitis according to a review of the Cochrane literature in 2012.
– Research published in 2013 demonstrated the efficacy of dexamethasone (a systemic corticosteroid) combined with salbutamol (a bronchodilator) in patients with bronchiolitis who have eczema or a family history of asthma.

In case of hospitalization

For more severe cases, oxygen administration using a mask or a probe and intravenous hydration may be required. It may be that the child, whose energy is all focused on breathing, cannot drink or eat. In the most severe cases, the use of non-invasive, or invasive, artificial ventilation may be necessary.

Recent Pot

Mediologiest © 2018
Please ask your doctor before taking any of the drugs mentioned in the articles or starting any exercise.
We are just providing the research which are publish in revelant medical magezines. We'll not responisble for any kind of sideffects of any of the mentioned durgs.
Frontier Theme