Mucocutaneous candidiasis is a mycosis, caused by a yeast called candida , part of the normal flora (saprophyte or commensal) of the digestive tract and vaginal mucosa.
Candidiasis is due to the transformation of this saprophyte yeast into a pathogenic filamentous form that can adhere to the mucous membranes and invade them.
Ten or so species of Candida are potentially pathogenic for humans, but Candida albicans is the most commonly found.
Candidiasis is an opportunistic infection, that is to say that it develops only under favorable conditions.
Risk factors for candidiasis include:
This is the first factor favoring the doctor will seek especially in case of profuse or recurrent form of candidiasis
Especially in case of cutaneous injury of inguinal folds, intergluteal, interdigital …
Broad-spectrum antibiotics kill the natural flora of the mucous membranes, favoring the multiplication of candida.
Irritation of the mucous membrane
Sexual intercourse, dryness of the mouth are contributing traumatic factors
By taking immunosuppressants, cortisone, AIDS …
Symptoms of candidiasis
In cutaneous forms
Cutaneous candidiasis is manifested primarily by intertrigos (redness) of large folds (inguinal, abdominal, sub-mammary, axillary and intergluteal folds), and small folds (labial commissure, anus, interdigital spaces, rarely interortal spaces).
The symptoms are identical: beginning of the redness at the bottom of the fold then extension of both sides on the adjacent cutaneous surfaces. The skin is red, varnished and oozing, cracked at the bottom of the fold which is sometimes covered with a whitish coating, the contours are irregular, and limited by a border in “desquamative collar”, and the presence of small pustules in periphery are very evocative.
Sometimes the cutaneous lesion is dry and desquamative.
In the hands, the damage is often the result of repeated contact with water, mechanical or chemical trauma, and application of dermocorticoids …
The intertrigos of the large folds are related to the humidity, the maceration or the extension to the skin of a candidiasis mucous digestive or genital.
In ungula forms
Most often, the attack begins with a perionyxis (redness and swelling of the skin around the nail), sometimes with pus pressure.
The nail is reached in a second time, and it often takes on a greenish-yellow, brown or black tinge, especially in the lateral areas.
The attack often results from repeated contact with water, mechanical or chemical trauma, application of dermocorticoids, and backflow of cuticles …
In mucosal forms
The most common manifestation is thrush or oral candidiasis. On a red mucous membrane
small white areas appear like “curdled milk” more or less adherent on the inside of the cheeks, gums, the palate, and the pillars of the tonsils …
Frequent in children, it can be seen in adults especially in case of immunodepression.
It causes redness, itching and white losses called “sliced”.
It is estimated that 75% of women have or will have one or more episodes of vaginal candidiasis. Of these, 10% have a recurrent form defined by more than four episodes per year. It is not a sexually transmitted disease but an opportunistic infection that can be promoted by sexual intercourse due to mucosal trauma or exceptionally due to profuse balanitis of the partner. The phases of the cycle (predominant role of the natural progesterone level) and the pregnancy could be as favorable.
The man presents redness of the balanopreputial furrow sometimes covered with a whitish coating and strewn with small evocative pustules.
In humans, genital candidiasis is often linked to repeated or chronic local irritation that makes the bed of infection during intercourse with an infected partner, or the existence of diabetes that must be sought in principle.