What is a Coma?
Coma is characterized by the condition in which a person is unable to respond to light, pain and sound normally, and the individual even unable to interact with the surrounding. Moreover, the person is not able to make voluntary movements and is deprived of normal sleep-wake cycles. For a matter of fact the coma is severe medical emergency which must be indebted to rapid medical response to intimate the brain and life functions. Mostly, the doctors will ask for series of blood tests and MRI scans which will help to ascertain the causes of coma.
Symptoms of a coma
The common symptoms of coma are:
- The eyes will close
- The functioning of the limbs may lost, only reflex movements are working
- Response to painful stimuli disrupted
The duration and the severity of the symptoms which causes consciousness vary and also depend on the underlying cause. Likewise, the hypercapnia and hypoglycemia are associated with mild agitation, followed by obtundation (almost mental capacity) leading to the loss of consciousness. While the coma due to severe injury to the head or due to hemorrhage occurs immediately. As a consequence, the doctors are interested in knowing the cause of the coma as it will help them to identify the underlying cause of the coma and possible treatment for it. When doctors admittance coma, they will eventually measure the level of consciousness.
Causes of a coma
The most possible causes of coma are:
- Diabetes: If you have increased blood sugar level a condition known as hyperglycemia, the sustained periods of this condition are likely to cause the coma.
- Lack of Oxygen (hypoxia): It usually happens when a person is drowned and is unable to awake because of the deficiency of blood to the brain. Almost, similar condition may arises due to heart attack.
- Infections: This happens in case of inflammation of the spinal cord, brain or tissues surrounding the brain, but it is the least cause of coma. The most common inflammations are meningitis and encephalitis.
- Stroke: It is the condition when a blood clot, blood vessels or ruptured artery causes hurdle in the blood flow to the brain. Consequently, the oxygen and glucose level in the brain gets lower leading to the damage of the brain cells and coma occurs.
- Drugs overdoses and Toxins: A severe exposure to the CO (carbon monoxide) causes coma and brain damage, which can also be caused by drugs overdoses.
- Traumatic Brain Injuries: The most common cause of the injuries is vehicular accident and some violent attacks, eventually the leading cause of coma.
Treatment options for a coma
As mentioned above coma needs severe medical attention. The first step is the instant survival of the patient, which include the maintenance of circulation and respiration. In few cases assistance in breathing is also applied, and also the blood and the fluid. Before taking the results of tests, the physician may apply glucose or antibiotics if the patient is diabetic shock. To provide the best treatment the main cause of the coma must be identified such as, liver disease, poisoning, kidney failure etc. To relieve the pressure due to swelling a surgery is needed.