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Dental cysts Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

From the Greek ”  Kustis  “, which means “bladder”, the cyst is a pathological cavity that contains a liquid, semi-liquid or even air content. It should be noted that it is never created by the accumulation of pus as one can sometimes hear it.

What is a dental cyst?

The cyst is a tumor since it corresponds to an increase in the volume of a clearly defined tissue without precise cause. This tissue formation occurs as a result of a disruption of benign cell growth. The cyst is a benign tumor to the extent that it is of no gravity, and can not give rise to metastases. This does not mean that he is not pathological.

Dental cysts are very common and extremely diverse. They grow on the spot, where they originated.

Possible causes of a dental cyst

Cysts may arise from debris of osteogenesis, the process by which bone tissue develops. These remains, isolated for a considerable time, would result, under the effect of an original stimulation still poorly known, the formation of a cyst.

According to some authors, the sudden proliferation of these debris would be secondary to inflammation of dental or periodontal origin, and would give rise to inflammatory cysts .

It is also known that formation and development of a cyst depend both on cell proliferation, fluid accumulation in its lumen and bone resorption. These 3 parameters are then variable according to the type of cyst we are dealing with.

Symptoms of the dental cyst

The orofacial sphere is particularly complex from a histological point of view. This peculiarity makes possible the great variety of cysts . Some will have a relationship with the dental organ, these are the odontogenic cysts, others not, non-odontogenic cysts.

Nevertheless, their diversity does not result in a multitude of different symptoms. In the vast majority of cases, bone swelling is the first warning sign. The inspection makes it possible to notice the consistency of the swelling, while other factors, such as age, frequency, site of the tumor and certain radiological signs can guide the diagnosis.

Dental signs, on the other hand, are long absent. When these warning signs appear, it means that the lesion has already reached a significant volume:

– Even short dental pain

– Dental mobility

– A fistula

– A feeling of pressure

– Gingival bleeding

– spontaneous fractures

– Occlusion disorders

– Dental displacements.

The x-ray is the basic examination for screening, although the risk of errors exist because of the possible range of damage. The orthopantomogram can appreciate its extension.

The different cysts

Odontogenic epithelial cysts related to development:

These cysts that derive from the odontogenic epithelium may appear during the development of a tooth or after its eruption.

In particular, the gingival cyst of the newborn, the gingival cyst of the adult (infrequent), the odontogenic keratocyst, the dentigerous cyst (formed within the enamel organ of a tooth still included), the eruption cyst (which surrounds the crown of an erupting tooth), the lateral periodontal cyst, the calcifying odontogenic cyst, and the odontogenic glandular cyst.

Non-odontogenic epithelial cysts

These non-odontogenic cysts represent only 5% of the maxillary cysts. There is the nasopalatin cyst (the most common of the group and detected thanks to the mobility of the incisors it causes), the nasolabial cyst and the globulomaxillary cyst.

Inflammatory odontogenic cysts

These cysts are most often related to infectious complications of untreated or inadequately treated dental pulp infections. As they are often asymptomatic, these cysts are discovered during routine examination. They can nevertheless be revealed during acute and particularly painful episodes related to the constitution of a hard swelling.

The lateral root cyst, the apical cyst, the residual cyst (2 to 10% of the dental cysts) and the cyst paradost are counted.

Treatment of dental cysts

Despite their diversity, dental cysts have one thing in common: their treatment. When the cyst causes superinfection or causes functional or unsightly repercussions, surgical enucleation is performed. Surgical treatment under general anesthesia may also be possible depending on the condition of the lesion. In most cases, and contrary to the dental fistula, the lesion does not disappear of itself when the infectious center supposedly at the origin of its appearance is treated.

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