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Dysmenorrhoea, Symptoms, Causes, Effects, Types and Treatment


It is characterized by painful periods. Primary dysmenorrhea is its one form which is characterized as normal menstruation with pain. The menstruation pain happen due to certain kind of reproductive disorder like fibroids and endometriosis is called as secondary dysmenorrhoea.


During primary dysmenorrhoea the muscles that line the uterus may squeeze and contract harder to dislodge the thick lining endometrium. The result of contraction can be seen in the form of reduction in the flow of blood to the uterus and create severe pain.
The pain during periods can be felt by any women and at any stage of their life, but some women also find no painful period after having pregnancy.
Symptoms of dysmenorrhoea

The common symptoms of dysmenorrhoea include:

  • Pain starts in the lower abdomen and then spread to the legs and lower back.
  • Pain that is experienced or gripping as a constant ache.
  • The pain can be felt usually when periods start or may be earlier.
  • The pain is severe during the first 24 hours.
  • The clots can be easily seen in the menstrual blood.

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Effects of Dysmenorrhoea

  • it is normally associated with severe headache
  • vomiting and nausea are common
  • problems related to digestion like constipation and diarrhea
  • Fall in a faint.
  • The symptoms which are known for premenstruation like swollen abdomen and tender breasts appears.
  • Pain starts after the first 24 hours.

Causes of primary dysmenorrhoea

Primary dysmenorrhoea is characterized by the harder work performed by the uterus to dislodge its normal lining and pain is caused by the resulted ischemia and contractions. These changes are produced by a hormone like compound called prostaglandins. Women having primary dysmenorrhoea are known to have higher levels of prostaglandins and as a result intense contractions of your uterus occurs. The reason behind higher levels of prostaglandins is still unknown.

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Treatment for primary dysmenorrhoea

The affected individuals need a thorough examination it will confirm that your pain during periods is not caused by reproductive disorders like fibroids and endometriosis.

The possible treatment may include:

  • Take complete bed rest for a complete day
  • Apply hot water bottle or anything which heat up your abdomen
  • Use paracetamol to relieve your pain
  • Use medication which inhibits prostaglandins like anti-inflammatory medications or ibuprofen
  • Regular attention and physical for complete fitness
  • Use relaxation techniques
  • To reduce menstruation pain use oral contraceptive pill

Causes of secondary dysmenorrhoea

The possible causes behind secondary dysmenorrhoea are:

  • the cells of the uterus called endometriosis main be implanted to other parts of pelvis which results in severe pain during menstruation
  • the benign tumors called fibroids made of muscle and the tissues may grow inside the uterus, they may be affected by most likely the sex hormone oestrogen

This is all about dysmenorrhoea no precautions are known for this disorder but you can control it with medications but it is long lasting and stay with you thought your life and you are most likely to be irritated by your normal life. All you can do is to take medicines to treat yourself.

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