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Glioblastoma, what is it? causes symptoms and treatment

Glioblastoma is a tumor that develops in the brain. Changes in behavior, neurological involvement, vomiting or headache are the general symptoms associated with this tumor.

Definition of glioblastoma

Glioblastoma is a brain tumor. It is the most common brain tumor. Its incidence (number of new cases), extends to 1 case out of 33,330 in one year. Its prevalence (number of cases among the general population) amounts to 1/100 000.

This tumoral form usually develops between 45 and 70 years old. In addition, any person, regardless of age, can be affected by the disease.

The most common location for glioblastoma is the hemisphere (right or left) of the brain. Nevertheless, this tumor can develop in many other parts of the cerebral cortex.

The evolution and extent of glioblastoma is, in the majority of cases, rapid: between 2 and 3 months.

The associated clinical signs are neurological. The principal is defined by intracranial hyper pressure. The latter then causes symptoms such as headaches (headaches) or vomiting. In addition, behavioral changes or neurological definitions may also be related.

Different forms of glioblastoma are dissociated, depending on the different tissues impacted: gliosarcoma, or even gigantocellular glioblastoma. The support for these different variants, however, are generally the same.

Causes of glioblastoma

Glioblastoma often develops without known and identified causes.

It is possible, however, that this type of tumor results from irradiation of the brain . Irradiation of the brain is usually effective in the management and treatment of another underlying disease.

From the genetic point of view, differences have been put forward, whether it is a primary glioblastoma or a secondary glioblastoma (initiated by the development of a benign astrocytic tumor).

Who is affected by glioblastoma?

Anyone can be concerned by the development of a benign astrocyte. But individuals between the ages of 45 and 70 years are at greater risk of developing such a tumor.

Evolution and possible complications of benign astrocyte

In terms of prognosis, that concerning glioblastoma is generally bad. And this, in the absence of satisfactory surgical resection and whose neurological symptoms are consistent.

The symptoms of glioblastoma

Glioblastoma is a brain tumor that causes intracranial hyper-pressure. This characteristic of the disease leads to certain atypical symptoms, such as neurological deficiencies, changes in behavior, headaches and vomiting.

How to diagnose glioblastoma?

The diagnosis of glioblastoma is mainly effective through a cranial scan or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) .

In the context of an underlying neurological infection, a differential diagnosis may also be effective. And this, to highlight the pathogen causing the infection.

The genetic origin and hereditary transmission of this type of tumor is exceptional. In addition, Turcot’s syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1 or Li-Fraumeni syndrome may trigger glioblastoma.

How to treat glioblastoma?

The confirmation of the diagnosis is made through a biopsy. In the setting of a glioblastoma, the first phase of treatment is related to an excision, either by a surgical act which consists in removing the tumor. This surgical procedure allows the removal of all or part of the tumor.

The second phase is similar to the use of radiotherapy, combined with chemotherapy.

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