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Parkinson’s disease, Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Treatment

Table of Contents

  1. Parkinson’s disease
  2. Symptoms
  3. Causes
  4. Risk factors
  5.  Complications
  6. Tests and diagnosis
  7. Treatments and drugs

Parkinson’s disease

It is progressive disorder of human nervous system which affect movement. Its development progresses slowly and starts usually with the tremoring in just in one hand. As the tremoring is the most common sign of Parkinson’s disease it can be easily identified by the slowing or stiffness while moving.

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At initial stages your arms and hands don’t show any symptoms such your face may slow or show no symptoms and swinging of the arm may not be prominent during walking. The speaking abilities also become disrupted and it may slow down or slurred. The Parkinson disease worsen as the condition progresses.

It is known that Parkinson disease is not curable but it symptoms can be easily minimized by proper medications. In some cases surgery may be required to repair the affected areas of your brain.

Symptoms

The signs and symptoms vary from person to person. The early symptoms are usually mild and ignored by most of the individuals. Symptoms starts appearing on one side of your body and remain worsen on the side where they begin and after that affect the complete body. The common signs and symptoms may include:

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  • Tremor: the tremor firstly begins in the limb, finger or hand. You may notice a pill-rolling tremor characterized by the regular rubbing of your thumb.The other symptom of Parkinson disease is the tremoring of your hand when you are at rest.
  • Rigid muscles: the rigidity of muscles is common symptom of disease. The stiffness in return cause slowness of movement and severe pain.
  • Slowed movement (bradykinesia): with growing age the Parkinson disease hinder your body’s ability to work normally. This in return make simple tasks difficult.You may develop habit of taking small steps and you also find difficult to get out of a stool.
  • Loss of automatic movements: during Parkinson’s disease you must have decreases ability while performing unconscious movements which may include blinking, swinging your arms and smiling.
  • Impaired posture and balance: the posture of your picture become stooped or you may also feel balance problems.
  • Writing changes: the writing ability may disrupt and become difficult and small.
  • Speech changes: you must have problems during speech. You may develop habit of speak, quickly, softly, hesitate or slur during talking. You can improve your speech with the help of speech language pathologist.

You can easily minimize many of these symptoms by medications. The medications help to increase the level of dopamine. Dopamine is a signal processing transmitter found in the brain.

Causes

The major cause of the Parkinson’s disease is the breaking down of certain nerve cells. Most of the symptoms are due to the deficiency of neurons which produce dopamine a chemical messenger in the brain. As the dopamine levels falls the normal functioning of brain also lost which may lead to signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

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The real cause of Parkinson’s disease is still unknown but the major contributing factors are:

  • Your genes: the doctors have identified some specific genes which might get mutation and cause Parkinson’s disease.
  • Environmental triggers: the direct exposure to toxic chemicals are known to increase the risk of Parkinson’s disease. Many changes occur in the brains of people with Parkinson’s disease, including:
  • Lewy bodies: the clumps formed by certain substance inside the brain trigger Parkinson’s symptoms. These clumps are commonly known as lewy bodies and researchers think that these have potential role in inducing the Parkinson’s disease.
  • A-synuclein: it is natural and widespread proteins found inside the body that is found in the lewy bodies as well and the cells don’t have the ability to break down them inside the lewy bodies. This is the most important factor known to cause the Parkinson’s disease.

Risk factors

The common risk factors associated with Parkinson disease are:

  • Age: it is less common in young adultsand normally begins in the middle or late stages of your life. Normally it is worst after 60.
  • Heredity: the risk factor is maximum in case of a close relative suffering with Parkinson’s disease. But this is not a general criteria unless you have number of individuals in the family having Parkinson’s disease.
  • Gender: it is more common in males than females.
  • Exposure to toxins: the direct exposure to herbicides and as well the pesticides increase your chances of developing Parkinson’s disease.

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 Complications

Parkinson’s disease is normally associated with number of complications which may include: Difficulty in thinking, sudden emotional and depression changes in the body, swallowing issues and sleep problems especially during night, constipation may also be caused, elevated blood pressure, problems in the bladder, changes in blood pressure, the problems with sense of smell, tiredness and fatigue after performing little work, pain in different areas of your body and successive decrease in your sexual desire are the common complications.

Tests and diagnosis

There is no proper way to diagnose the Parkinson’s disease while your medical attendant having lot of experience in neurology may diagnose it based on medical history. While your doctor may also advice you simple test which will help him in evaluation of Parkinson’s disease.

Treatments and drugs

Parkinson’s disease is not curable but medications may help in controlling specific symptoms. In advance cases surgery is also recommended. Additionally changes in life style are also recommended in order to minimize the risk factors. The most common medication which are recommended to treat the Parkinson’s disease are: Carbidopa-levodopa, MAO-B inhibitors, Dopamine agonists, Anticholinergics, COMT (Catechol O-methyltransferase inhibitors) and Amantadine.

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The surgical operations can be performed in the following ways:

Deep Brain Stimulation: this requires the implantation of electrodes in certain areas of your brain. These electrodes are connected with a generator which can be previously implanted in your chest bone which send electrical impulses t brain and help in reducing the risk factors associated with Parkinson’s disease. This is not very convenient method but it is required in cases when the medications became ineffective and are related with certain side effects. At that time surgery is the only thing which can facilitate you.

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http://www.mediologiest.com/alzheimers-disease-symptoms-and-medications/

You can get more information from the following links

 http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/parkinsons-disease/basics/definition/con-20028488

http://www.webmd.com/parkinsons-disease/

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