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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

It is an infection of the reproductive organs of a female. It is one of the leading sexually transmitted disease causes serious complications in women. The consequences of this disease is the irreversible damage in the uterus of the female, fallopian tube, ovaries and other parts of the reproductive system in females and is also known as the primary cause of infertility in women.


How Common Is Pelvic Inflammatory Disease?

According to one estimate in America every year almost one million women experience the pelvic inflammatory disease. The result is so devasting that every year 1 million women become infertile. Additionally more than 1 million ectopic pregnancy are the result if this pelvic disease. It is also believed and report that the rate of infection in highest in the teenagers.

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Causes of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

In normal cases the cervix prevents the entry of bacteria inside the reproductive organs and prevent inflammation of the reproductive organs. If due to certain reasons the cervix is expose to any kind of sexually transmitted disease the organs such as chlamydia or gonorrhea then cervix itself become infected and it became unable to prevent the entry of microorganisms to your internal reproductive organs. The PID normally occur when disease causing organisms enter the upper genital tract from the cervix. It is estimated that more than 90% cases of PID arises due to the untreated gonorrhea. While the other cases which contribute towards the PID include childbirth, abortion and other pelvic procedures.

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Symptoms of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

The possible symptoms of the PID include:

  • The pain in the lower abdominal region or tenderness or pain associated with the right upper abdominal region
  • The abnormal or irregular vaginal discharge which is normally brown or yellow in color having bad odor
  • Pain during urination
  • High fever or chill
  • Unexpected nausea or vomiting
  • Severe while having a sex

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Risk Factor for Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

There are a lot of factors which put a women at risk of having a PID

  • The women having problems related to sexually transmitted diseases like chlamydia or gonorrhea are at the highest risk of getting PID
  • If you have an prior episode then you are more likely to have another episode of PID
  • The teenagers having sexual drive are at more risk the mature and old ladies
  • Women who have habit of changing sexual partners are at a greater risk of STDs

It is also estimated that douching have some link with PID. As a result of douching the bacteria may get enter in to the upper genital tract and consequences are sever so you need medical attention.

Diagnosing Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

The doctor may ask you to tell him your complete medical history and sexual activity. Then in the nest step doctor perform the complete test if your genital organs and look for anything related with chlamydia and gonorrhea. During examination the doctor may report abnormal cervical discharge fallopian tube, tenderness of the cervix. Then this discharge will be used to test the possible cause of infection which may include the cultures for chlamydia and gonorrhea.

If you are suspected for PID then your doctor may advice for tests which may include.

  • The blood test will be performed to analyze the evidence of the infection
  • The ultrasound i.e. sonogram to view the inside of the reproductive organs

Other tests which are not used commonly may include:

Endometrial Biopsy: it is the procedure during which tissue lining from the uterus is removed for testing and evaluation

Laparoscopy: it is a procedure during which a small lightened instrument called laparoscope is inserted to examine the inside of the internal reproductive organs through the small opening in your lower abdomen

 Treatment for PID

If you are reported to have PID then start treatment as soon as possible.

Antibiotics: for mild cases of PID the oral antibiotics are advisable, but complicated and advance cases of PID can be treated by sing both oral and intravenous antibiotics. If you are feeling uneasy with oral medication or if the case is sever then you need hospitalization to get the intravenous medications directly through your vein. Incas when you are reported for PID then your partners also need medical attention even if they don’t have any symptom of PID. Otherwise the infection is known to recur after having a sex again.

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  • Surgery: IF PID leads to abscess i.e. inflamed tissues originate the pus then antibiotics are not effective. Surgery will be advisable to remove these abscess. In this the pus is removed and prevent further widespread infection. Other the infection may intervene in to abdomen and pelvis. The surgery is dependent on the condition and can be done with two different methods such as laparoscope in which a thin and lightened instrument is inserted through a cut in the abdomen while in laparotomy abdomen is open up to perform surgery. Both of these procedures are lined under the heading of major surgical operations and always performed under anesthesia. In case when abscesses are reported on the ovaries or in the uterus then removal of uterus the hysterectomy and removal of ovary the oophorectomy will be done.

Problems Associated With Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

The recurrent episodes of the PID are known to cause the scarring of fallopian tube which may lead to infertility, chronic pelvic pain or ectopic pregnancy. Infertility rate is reported as every 8th women having PID will be infertile.

Prevention of PID

Although it is sexually transmitted disease but it is preventable. To prevent PID avoid multiple sex partners and use pregnancy control barriers or barriers which are used to prevent the sexually transmitted disease. Always make sure that you are secure before having sex with your partner. The least you can do is to avoid multiple sex partners. Make sure that you have visited your concerned medical doctor once in a week for complete analysis. It will surely help you to prevent the disease additionally you will be facilitated by early diagnose of the disease.


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