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Risk factors for Cardiovascular disease

Risk factors for Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with number of different factors which include:

  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • Injuries due to smoking
  • High level of cholesterol
  • Diabetes
  • Reduced exercise
  • Obesity
  • Heart disease specially if you have a family history
  • Ethnic background

Mostly, the risk factors are interlinked, hence if you have developed one risk factor, then most likely you will develop the other as well in a no time.

High blood pressure

Hypertension or high blood pressure is among the most important CVD risk factor. If the blood pressure is very high it results in severe damage of the arteries and certainly you will develop a blood clot. As we all know the measuring factor for blood pressure in mmHg (millimetres of mercury) which provide it in two figures:

  • Systolic Pressure: this is the pressure when your heart is pumping blood out
  • Diastolic pressure: this is the pressure when your heart is in a resting condition between the beats, which indicates the resistance of the arteries against blood flow

Smoking

Tobacco use especially smoking is the leading risk factor for CVD. It is known that the toxic substances in the tobacco narrows your coronary artery, and put you on a high risk of developing CVD.

High blood cholesterol

The cholesterol level in the blood can be measured both by the HDL and LDL method. For a matter of fact the recommended levels of the cholesterol in your arteries depends on the risk of developing CVD. In case of high cholesterol level, it will cause the arteries to become narrow which may results in the blood clot.

Diabetes mellitus

The diabetes is life threatening condition, in which your blood sugar level become very high. Diabetes can be categorised into two main types i.e. type 1 and type 2. The increased blood glucose level results in permanent damage of the arteries, which results in atheroma (fatty deposits)

Lack of exercise

The high blood pressure is more likely happens when you don’t perform sufficient exercise. The other factors associated with it are high stress levels, high cholesterol levels and obesity, which are themselves risk factor for CVD.

Overweight or obese

Obesity increases the chances of high blood pressure and diabetes. The method used to measure the obesity is the BMI (body mass index). The BMI level reported in adults are:

  • Lower than 18.5 considered as underweight
  • Between 18.5 to 24.9 is considered as healthy weight
  • Between 25 to 29 considered as overweight
  • Between 30 to 39.9 considered as obese
  • And more than 40 is considered as severely obese

 Family history of CVD

If someone in your family have CVD, then you are more likely to develop CVD. In this particular case tell you GP about your family history, they will check your cholesterol level and blood pressure. If you are above 40, you may be advised to have heart health check to get clear insight of the chances of CVD.

Ethnic background

Ethnicity is considered as the one of significant risk factor for CVD. Moreover, the coronary heart disease is most common in south Asian communities. In African Caribbean the stroke and high blood pressure are more common. Furthermore, the diabetes is also common in these communities.

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