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What is testicular cancer? Symptoms causes and treatment

Testicular cancer affects between 1% and 1.5% of men in France. It is therefore a rare cancer. Early diagnosis and rapid management allows for rapid and optimal healing.

Definition of testicular cancer

Testicular cancer is characterized as a rare tumor (abnormal proliferation of cancer cells). This cancer affects between 1% and 1.5% of men. Predominance is especially attributed to young men (between 20 and 35 years). In France, there are approximately 4.5 new cases of testicular cancer per 100,000 men per year. Moreover, this incidence has increased in recent years but the associated risk of death has decreased by 40% since the 1990s.

There are two phases in testicular cancer:

  • the development of non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (TGNS)
  • the development of seminomatous germ tumors (TGS)

In almost half of the cases of testicular cancer, the diagnosis is made at the so-called “limited” stage. Fast management allows easy healing.

Who is affected by testicular cancer?

All men are at risk of developing such cancer. In addition, young men (between 20 and 35 years old are more prone to carcinogenic risk).

Evolution and possible complications of testicular cancer

The evolutions and complications of testicular cancer can be similar to:

  • cardiovascular complications
  • a development of Raynaud’s syndrome
  • pulmonary and / or renal toxicity

Symptoms of testicular cancer

The clinical signs and symptoms associated with this type of cancer include:

  • testicular pain
  • genes and swelling in the testicle
  • a feeling of heaviness of the testicle, consequence of the development of a cellular cluster that does not diminish over time

Other rarer signs can be related to: breast development in men (gynecomastia), back pain or abdomen.

Causes and risk factors of testicular cancer

Some factors are attributable to an increased risk of developing this type of cancer:

  • the presence of a family history of this type of cancer
  • the presence of gonadal dysgenesis syndrome or Turner syndrome (abnormalities in the development of the genitals, resulting in the development of female genitals)
  • Klinefelter syndrome (chromosomal anomaly leading to infertility in humans)
  • Male infertility
  • certain environmental factors (estrogen intake (female hormones) by the mother during her pregnancy, chemical substances, insecticides, etc.)

How to treat testicular cancer?

The treatment of testicular cancer depends on the progress of the disease. It may be lymph node dissection staging, chemotherapy or simple monitoring.

Supervision is the possible management of patients at low risk of relapse and whose ongoing monitoring of treatment by the patient is certain.

Chemotherapy can treat the cancer of patients at risk of relapse carcinogenic high.

Finally, staging dissection is available for patients who do not opt ​​for the two previous options, or that contraindications prevent the use of chemotherapy. This management is defined by drainage of the testicle.

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