There are many causes of skin discoloration and there are different types of skin discoloration.
Types of Skin discoloration
The normal human skin is somewhat smooth and uniform in its appearance. But sometime skin become darker, tanned in areas that are exposed to sun and it is a general fact that palms of the hands and sole of feet have lighter appearance than rest of the body’s skin. Sometime the discolored areas appear as bright spots and in some cases it is hidden. Some general forms of skin discoloration which might appear in normal cases are as follows.
- Some areas are darker a sign of hyperpigmentation that may be dry or rough in different cases.
- Lightening of skin in the form of flat patches.
- Facial skin become more reddish than other body parts.
- Scratches or cuts often left behind their marks as light or dark
Hyperpigmentation commonly known as skin darkening occurs due to different reasons. Medication depends upon the area of discoloration and how the damaged surface looks like, whether it is itchy and painful or normal discoloration without any pain. There are several factors that encountered skin darkening some of them are.
- Venous Stasis
It is generally characterized by decrease in blood flow usually veins of legs. It normally appears in people having heart failure or people with varicose veins. Both of these conditions results in severe decrease in blood flow. It is commonly known as stasis dermatitis its particular symptoms are: swelling of legs, appearance of sores or ulcers and successive thickening and then darkening of the skin texture. Ankles are most affected body parts for discoloration. Compression hose is the common treatment for this problems which results in decreasing swelling.
Melasma is known as darkening of facial texture. It usually appears during pregnancy and in women who use pills to control birth. Young girls with normal dark skin texture and people who live in those areas where they are directly exposed to sun are at high risk of skin darkening. Common treatment include protection against sun exposure by using some gentle creams.
Life lasting darkened skin results from the appearance of birthmarks. They can appear anywhere over the skin and are known to be harmless. They are commonly known as Café au lait having the color of coffee signal a genetic problem.
The most common causes of skin lightening are infection and aging. There are different causes of skin lightening some of them are as follows.
A skin disorder in which lightening of skin occur gradually specially in patches of skin. The symptoms may include lightening of skin just as a single spot or large patches and in severe cases most of the body is affected. It’s not an alarming condition but condition may be upsetting. It is commonly known to occur due to some immune system disorders. The cure of such a skin include use of steroids, creams to calm the immune reaction and use of special lights.
It may look like vitiligo but it is caused due to fungal infection. As the fungus grow prominently it prevents the skin from proper tanning. As the fungus grow some lighter patches starts appearing and the patches start growing and join to form larger tineaversicolor. Different varieties of antifungal creams are available to treat this particular disease.
It usually occurs due to damage, some kind of skin allergy or due to skin irritation. Some common causes of reddened skin are as follows.
A common disorder in people having fair skin but it is not a stringent rule. It starts appearing as facial flush like deep bluish and then starts reddened permanently. In severe cases it looks like to have prominent blood vessels and swallowed skin. It is very much prominent and irritating because of the skin texture damaging. Curing include avoiding use of spicy foods, and places having high temperature. Use of sunscreens and prescribed medicines are proved to be very fruitful against rosacea. Different antibiotics including both oral and topical such as tetracycline or doxycycline and metronidazole are very helping.
- Red Birthmarks
Different types of birthmarks are reddish in color which include store bites i.e. pale red patches behind the neck. They may not appear in childhood but appear later on in adulthood. Such kind of marks can also be seen on forehead and eyelids as well. They are life long and can be easily recognized as port-wine reddish stains, reddish to purple stains without proper blood vessels.